Sculpture can be defined as an Art of forming figures and objects in relief solid or in the round.

Sculpture is also the art of modeling in 3-dimensional form with clay, cement, paper mash or carved on wood, marble, stone, ivory or other materials that the Artist chooses.

It is also the art of producing art works with clay, wax, cement, stone, ivory, horn etc through the methods of carving, casting, construction and modeling.

Sculpture could be produced in the round or relief sculpture.


Materials used for sculptural art work includes: Clay, paper, cement, Body filler, stone, horn, bone, bronze, metal, sand, wax, wood, ivory, gold, silver, calabash etc.


Calipers, Hand trowel, shovel, gouage, head pan, palette knife, chisel, mallet, mortar, pestle, cutlass, hand saw, hand paper, harmer, nail, hand file etc.


The sculptural art works can be produced through:


  1. Casting method
  2. Carving method
  3. Construction method
  4. Modeling method


  1. Casting method: This is the method of sculpture in which the artist produce identical piece of art work using mould. Just like the brick layer uses his mould to produce blocks, the artist uses the mould to produce identical works of art.

    To produce the cast, apply engine oil, Vaseline or any other things that can act as separator to the mould. Pour any material of your choice in the mould when it is in the slurry state or liquid state so that the impression will register on it when solidifies. Materials that are possible with this are: clay, cement, gold, bronze, silver.

  1. Carving method: It is the process of removing unwanted areas from a solid material, for the purpose of achieving a work of art. It is done with the heap of chisel and mallet, chisel removes while mallet adds force to chisel during the process.

This method is known as substractive method of production. Materials suitable for these are wood, soap, wax, stone, ivory, marbles etc.

  1. Construction Method: Construction is the process of assembling different types of materials to form a whole. Metal construction for instance means joining different sizes and shapes of metal with welding machine. Construction could also be done with any other materials like wood construction involves joining together pieces of wood by glueing or nailing to form a whole piece of work.
  2. Modeling: Modelling is a method by which sculpture is built by adding process. The media are clay, cement, plaster of paris, bee wax, paper mallet.

Modeling is a simple process in which forms or shapes can be altered and rebuilt with the necessary skills and techniques. This is because of the plaster qualities of the materials.

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