Livestock management is the rearing of animals and birds in a farm


Poultry equipment and their main uses.

s/n Equipment Main use
1 Folus For housing poultry birds
2 Battery cage Housing of mainly layers
3 Debeakers Reducing beak lengths
4 Incubator Hatching fertile eggs
5 Candler detecting unfertile eggs
6 Buckets Fetching water
7 Feeder/hoppers Feeding birds
8 Drinkers Provision of water
9 Hypodermic syringe/needle Injecting birds


                      TERMS USED IN POULTRY

  1. Cock – male fowl above one year of age
  2. Cockerel – male fowl below one year of age
  3. Hen – female fowl above one year of age
  4. Pullet – female fowl below one year of age
  5. Chick – A young fowl (0-6weeks old)
  6. Capon – A castrated male fowl
  7. Canonization – process of castration in fowl
  8. Trading – Act of mating in fowl
  9. Grower – fowl between 7-19 weeks of age
  10. Layer – female fowl over 20 weeks of age that can lay eggs
  11. Broiler – fowl reared for meat
  12. Clutch – a group of young chicks
  13. Flock – a group of fowls
  14. Chicken – meat of fowl

Breads of Domestics fowl

The various breeds of fowls can be classified into three main groups namely:

  1. Egg producers e.g. while leghorn, brown leghorn
  2. The meat producer (broilers), eg.a Sussex, Cornish and cochin
  3. The dual purpose ones (i.e. meat and egg producers), e.g. Rhode Island Red, Plymouth Rock and New Hampshire.


System of poultry management

System of poultry management defines the extent to which birds are exposed to sunshine, pasture and also housing pattern. The three systems of poultry management includes;

  1. Extensive
  2. Semi-intensive
  3. Intensive
  4. Extensive system=> In this system, domestic fowls are allowed to roam about in search of food and water. Example of the extensive system of rearing poultry as the free range system.
  5. Semi – Intensive => This is a mid way between intensive and extensive. The birds are allowed housed in a fixed building bill are allowed to move above within a fence area during the day. Example of the semi-extensive system is the fold unit system.
  6. Intensive System=> Under this system, the birds are confined within the building and are not allowed to move out. Examples are Deep litter system and Battery cage system.

Management practices for chicks

The following are management practices involved in rearing chicks from day old to six weeks.

  1. Clean and disinfect or fumigate the brooding house before the arrival of chicks.
  2. The floor of the brooder house should be made of concrete and with the walls which must be reproof.
  3. Cover the floor with clean wood shavings before the arrival of chicks
  4. Make available clean feeders, waters, water troughs, source of heat (stove, lantern or electric bulbs), starter chick mash (feed) and some anti-stress drugs (vitamins and antibiotics)
  5. Provide warmth (heat energy) with charcoal pot, kerosene lamps and electric bulbs.
  6. Provide adequate ventilation, water and feed regularly.
  7. Raise chicks in brooder houses where heat/warmth is regulated when necessary
  8. Make consultations with the veterinary department to draw up programme of vaccination for the chicks
  9. Clean the feeders and waterers regally and replace with new feed and fresh water.
  10. Ensure a temperature range of 320C – 350C lowered by 0.20C per day and a relative humidity of 50% to 70%.
  11. Ensure that day old chicks are allowed to rest very well, well feed and are gives anti-stress vitamins on arrival
  12. Medicate feed or water with coccidio-stat or anti-coccidiosis at three weeks of age.
  13. Make a small shallow trench filled with water or engine oil around brooder house to deter soldier ants invasion
  14. Deworm at six weeks (for broilers)
  15. Isolate or cull sick birds.

Disease control in poultry

Age of Birds Vaccination Disease
1 – 7days Inrtraocular (NDVI/0 through the Against Newcastle disease
18 – 20 days eye gumboro vaccine IBDV through drinking water Against gumboro disease
3 – 4 weeks NDV Lasota through drinking water Against new castle disease
3 – 4 weeks Fowl pox vaccine (FPV) 5lab in wing be komorov (NDVK) through intra-muscular injection Fowl pox disease

new castle disease

8weeks Komorov vaccine (NDVK) through intra-muscular injection Newcastle disease

Livestock Management and Animal Nutrition

The feed given to farm animals is general is generally known as livestock feed.

Classification livestock feed

The four main classes of animal feed are:

  1. Basal/Energy feed or carbohydrate concentrate
  2. Protein concentrate
  3. Mineral / vitamin supplement
  4. Roughages
  5. Basal feed => This refers to feed that are very high in energy or a starchy food e.g. maize and cassava. They are highly digestive and low in minerals.
  6. Protein concentrate => This type of feed has crude fiber content less than 18%, high in protein, low in carbohydrates and fats, highly digestible and low in minerals.
  7. Mineral / vitamins supplements => These are required in small quantities in feed, they are low in energy, low in protein fiber. They are high in vitamins and minerals.
  8. Roughages => These are fees that have crude fibre content more than 18%. They are high in fibre, low in protein. They exist in different forms such as bay, straw, soilage and silage.

Sources and functions of food nutrients

Mineral Sources Functions Deficiency symptoms
Calcium Bone meal, oyster shell, lime-stone, milk, rock calcium phosphate Bone and teeth formation, egg shell formative blood clothing Ricket, Osteomalacia, soft egg shell, Retarded growth
Phosphorus Bone meal, dicalcium phosphate, fish meal Bone and teeth formation; egg shell formation Rickets, lack of appetite, osteomalcia.
Magnesium Salt licks, wheat gems, forage, grasses Aid functioning of the nervous system. Activation of enzymes Hyper-irritability, nervous disorder called tetany




Sodium & chloride Common salt, salt lick, fish meal Regulates acid-based balanced, maintenance of osmotic pressure, constituents of Hcl in stomach improves pleasant taste of feed Reduced growth & weight; decline in appetite.
Sulphur Salt licks, fish meal Constituents of proteins & amino acids like cysterin, methione Poor growth
Iron Yeast, iron injection, salt licks Constituent of heaemoglobin in red blood cell. Constituent of protein called myoglobuline Anaemia e.g. baby pig anaemia of piglets
Iodine Iodized salts, fish meal Constituent of hormone called thyroxine Goitre
Cobalt Salt licks activate some enzymes Constituents of vitamins B12 General malnutrition
Copper Salt licks Aids formation of haemoglobin and iron absorption Anaemia
Fluorine Salt licks, fluorinated water Prevents tooth decay Tooth decay.


Types of ration/diet and their uses

Diet=> A diet is the amount of feed regularly given to or consumed by an animals.

Ration:=> ration is the total supply of feed given to an animal in a twenty – four hour period. It is the amount of food taken by an animal per day.

There are two type of ration namely:

  1. Maintenance Ratio => This is the type of ration given to farm animals just to maintain normal functioning of the body system. This enables the animals to maintain its body weight. It can be supplied to dry or non-lactating animals when they are not lactating.
  2. Production Ration => This is the type of ration given to farm animals to enable them to produce. Production ratio supplies nutrients above what is required for maintenance in order to make the animal capable of high milk, meat, egg and growth.

Components of a balanced diet

  1. Carbohydrates => carbohydrate should comprise roughly 60% of the diet.
  2. Vitamins
  3. Minerals
  4. Unsaturated fats
  5. Protein
  6. Fibre
  7. Water

Causes and symptoms of malnutrition and their correction in farm animals.

Malnutrition is a condition in which an animal shows evidence of nutritional deficiency. It results when animals eats diet which is deficient in one or more nutrients like protein, vitamins, carbohydrates minerals and vitamins.



Causes Symptoms Correction
Ricket & osteomalacia perosis (slipped tendon) Lack of calcium, phosphorus & vitamin D lack of chlorine, folic acid, calcium phosphorus in diet Flexible & curve bones, soft – shell egg,, chicken lie down on their kneels Add fish, meal, bone or oyster shell to feed, add vit. B – complex & bone meal
Pregnancy toxemia Lack  of sufficient energy ketosis Loss of appetite intake by farm animals Feed carbohydrate to animals
Milk fever Low blood sugar constipation Loss of appetite Feed oyster shell or carbohydrate
Grass tetany Low blood Nervousness, galloping and convulsion Feed quality grasses and legumes to animals
Baby pig anaemia Low iron in blood Loss of appetite & nervousness Inject iron dextran into the body.




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