Livestock management is the rearing of animals and birds in a farm
REQURIEMENT FOR LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
Poultry equipment and their main uses.
|1||Folus||For housing poultry birds|
|2||Battery cage||Housing of mainly layers|
|3||Debeakers||Reducing beak lengths|
|4||Incubator||Hatching fertile eggs|
|5||Candler||detecting unfertile eggs|
|8||Drinkers||Provision of water|
|9||Hypodermic syringe/needle||Injecting birds|
TERMS USED IN POULTRY
Breads of Domestics fowl
The various breeds of fowls can be classified into three main groups namely:
System of poultry management
System of poultry management defines the extent to which birds are exposed to sunshine, pasture and also housing pattern. The three systems of poultry management includes;
Management practices for chicks
The following are management practices involved in rearing chicks from day old to six weeks.
Disease control in poultry
|Age of Birds||Vaccination||Disease|
|1 – 7days||Inrtraocular (NDVI/0 through the||Against Newcastle disease|
|18 – 20 days||eye gumboro vaccine IBDV through drinking water||Against gumboro disease|
|3 – 4 weeks||NDV Lasota through drinking water||Against new castle disease|
|3 – 4 weeks||Fowl pox vaccine (FPV) 5lab in wing be komorov (NDVK) through intra-muscular injection||Fowl pox disease
new castle disease
|8weeks||Komorov vaccine (NDVK) through intra-muscular injection||Newcastle disease|
Livestock Management and Animal Nutrition
The feed given to farm animals is general is generally known as livestock feed.
Classification livestock feed
The four main classes of animal feed are:
Sources and functions of food nutrients
|Calcium||Bone meal, oyster shell, lime-stone, milk, rock calcium phosphate||Bone and teeth formation, egg shell formative blood clothing||Ricket, Osteomalacia, soft egg shell, Retarded growth|
|Phosphorus||Bone meal, dicalcium phosphate, fish meal||Bone and teeth formation; egg shell formation||Rickets, lack of appetite, osteomalcia.|
|Magnesium||Salt licks, wheat gems, forage, grasses||Aid functioning of the nervous system. Activation of enzymes||Hyper-irritability, nervous disorder called tetany
|Sodium & chloride||Common salt, salt lick, fish meal||Regulates acid-based balanced, maintenance of osmotic pressure, constituents of Hcl in stomach improves pleasant taste of feed||Reduced growth & weight; decline in appetite.|
|Sulphur||Salt licks, fish meal||Constituents of proteins & amino acids like cysterin, methione||Poor growth|
|Iron||Yeast, iron injection, salt licks||Constituent of heaemoglobin in red blood cell. Constituent of protein called myoglobuline||Anaemia e.g. baby pig anaemia of piglets|
|Iodine||Iodized salts, fish meal||Constituent of hormone called thyroxine||Goitre|
|Cobalt||Salt licks activate some enzymes||Constituents of vitamins B12||General malnutrition|
|Copper||Salt licks||Aids formation of haemoglobin and iron absorption||Anaemia|
|Fluorine||Salt licks, fluorinated water||Prevents tooth decay||Tooth decay.|
Types of ration/diet and their uses
Diet=> A diet is the amount of feed regularly given to or consumed by an animals.
Ration:=> ration is the total supply of feed given to an animal in a twenty – four hour period. It is the amount of food taken by an animal per day.
There are two type of ration namely:
Components of a balanced diet
Causes and symptoms of malnutrition and their correction in farm animals.
Malnutrition is a condition in which an animal shows evidence of nutritional deficiency. It results when animals eats diet which is deficient in one or more nutrients like protein, vitamins, carbohydrates minerals and vitamins.
|Ricket & osteomalacia perosis (slipped tendon)||Lack of calcium, phosphorus & vitamin D lack of chlorine, folic acid, calcium phosphorus in diet||Flexible & curve bones, soft – shell egg,, chicken lie down on their kneels||Add fish, meal, bone or oyster shell to feed, add vit. B – complex & bone meal|
|Pregnancy toxemia||Lack of sufficient energy ketosis||Loss of appetite intake by farm animals||Feed carbohydrate to animals|
|Milk fever||Low blood sugar constipation||Loss of appetite||Feed oyster shell or carbohydrate|
|Grass tetany||Low blood||Nervousness, galloping and convulsion||Feed quality grasses and legumes to animals|
|Baby pig anaemia||Low iron in blood||Loss of appetite & nervousness||Inject iron dextran into the body.|