FOOD PURCHASING –Food Hygiene and safety


Food Hygiene and safety

Food hygiene means preventing harmful bacteria from growing in food, by keeping the kitchen, appliances, tools and yourself clean as well as washing, cooking, preserving and storing food properly or food hygiene is used to describe the preservation and preparation of food in a manner that ensures the food is safe for human consumption. This is also called food sanitation.

Food hygiene is very important to health. This is because harmful bacteria can grow in food until the food becomes unsafe to eat. These bacteria are tiny living things that multiply rapidly. They spread food-borne diseases namely salmonella poisoning and botulism.

Reasons for healthy food handling

  1. For proper storage of food before use, to prevent food decay
  2. Retain nutrient content of food
  3. To avoid food contamination, infection and poisoning

Ways of handling food for safety

  • Person handling food must be well groomed and clean
  • Must put on fresh, clean apron and wear head cover
  • Finger nail must be cut short and clean with no nail lacquers
  • Hands should be well washed with soap before and after using toilet
  • Infection is easily transferred from hair, nose, and mouth. Therefore, use your face mask while preparing food.
  • People with colds, sore throat, boils, diarrhea or any other gastrointinal disorder, should not handle food.
  • All peels should be thrown into covered container
  • Food should be kept covered and maintained either ice-cool or piping hot
  • The water used in the preparation of food should be from a purified source or boiled eating.
  • Wash raw fruits, vegetables before eating.

Hygiene food management strategies

  1. Prevent contaminating food with infections agent of spreading from people, pet and pest.
  2. Separate raw and cooked food to prevent contaminating the cooked foods
  3. Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature
  4. Store food at the proper temperature
  5. To use safe water and cooked materials

Good hygiene food handling can lead to

  1. Good health
  2. Prevention of infection and food borne diseases
  3. Preservation of food nutrients
  4. Prolong the shelf life of food items

Unhygienic practices by food handlers are

  1. Poor personal hygiene practice
  2. Unguarded coughing and sneezing
  3. The habit of licking the fingers
  4. Uncovered hair
  5. Nose picking
  6. Handling of handkerchief

Effects of unhygienic food handling to consumers can lead to

  1. Food poisoning
  2. Food deterioration
  3. Poor quality food nutrients
  4. Ill-health

Food contamination

Food contamination means the food that is contaminated with germs

Causes of food contamination

Food may contaminate if the:

  1. Water used for washing or cleaning is not potable
  2. Personal handling food suffer from communicable diseases
  3. Insects like housefly can deposit communicable diseases
  4. Containers or utensils used for storage and preparation are not clean
  5. Rodent e.g. rats and mice are carriers of diseases such as plague
  6. Person handling food have unhygienic habit
  7. Cockroaches are also source of contaminant that cause diarrhea and dysentery.

Contaminated food can cause:

  1. Upset stomach nausea and vomiting
  2. Abdominal cramps
  3. Fever
  4. Diarrhea
  5. Dehydration

Prevention of food contamination

  1. Keeping the prepared food in cupboards with netting
  2. filling cracks in the walls and flooring which are ususally the places wher insects breed multiply
  3. covering drain, holes etc with wire guuze so as to prevent entry of rodent
  4. spray insects with insecticides

Sensory signs of spolliage and caustive micro-organisms.

  1. salnoneliosis: This is caused by typhoid symptoms are several headache vomitting diarrhea, cramps and fever
  2. staphylococal poisoning is transmitted by food handlers who are carrying bacteria infection. Its symptions includes, vomitting abdominal cramps, diarrhea
  3. perfrigens poisoning is caused by bacteria contaminated cooked food. The symptoms are nausea diarrhea, acute inflamation of stomach
  4. Biotalism is caused by eating contaminated canned foods. Symptoms are double vision, inability to swallow, speech difficulty, progressive respiratory paralysis.
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