Biological Association

There are different types of biological association; thus,

  1. Symbiosis
  2. Commensalism
  3. Parasitism
  4. Predation


It is the ability of organisms to withstand unfavourable changes which affect their life in environment.

Tolerance range:

It is the range between minimum and maximum limit which organism can tolerate as so to survive in environment most animals’ minimum temperature limit is O C while maximum limit is 42C. Above or below these, the organism may die.

Geographical range:

It refers to a given location within which most organisms can live.


Meaning: it means the change in structure, function and behavior of an organism in order to adjust or survive in it’s environment.

Animal adaptation:

  1. Aquatic animal adaptation:
  2. Possession of gills for gaseous exchange
  3. Possession of tail for swimming
  4. Possession streamlines body
  5. Terrestrial habitat
  6. Possession of lungs for gaseous exchange
  7. Possession of hairs / feather for body temperature
  8. Possession of powerful limbs for movement in animals.
  9. Arboreal habitant
  10. Possession of limbs/ claws/tails for climbing and piercing
  11. Possession of wings for flight
  12. Possession of strong muscles and tendons for flight

Plant Adaptation:

  1. Aquatic plants adaptation:
  2. Possession of adventitious root
  3. Possession of breathing root for gaseous exchange
  4. Possession of waxy cuticles to prevent wetting
  5. Terrestrials adaptation of plants:
  6. Possession of succulent stems to store water
  7. Possession of numerous leaves for photosynthesis
  8. Possession of root system for support and absorption.

NB: Read adaption in

  1. Frog
  2. Chameleon
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