CHIOCE AND STORAGE OF FOODSTUFF
Bulk purchasing is the practice of buying of food in large quantities with a view of storing them at home. In bulk purchasing, it involves paying a lower price per unit in exchange for purchasing much large quantities.
Before going to the market to buy food in bulk, the home maker should first of all prepare a list of items to be bought to avoid skipping of some important items. After making the list, the next thing is the market survey; this will help in determining the relative prices of goods.
ADVANTAGES OF BULK PURCHASING
- It saves money: – it is cheaper to buy in bulk than buying in small pieces.
- It encourages seasonal purchase: – food items are bought cheaper when they are in season.
- It saves time:- the homemaker conserves energy and time for other household chores
- It protects the homemaker from market price fluctuation.
- It makes ingredients readily available in the house thereby helping the housewife to take care of emergency.
- If there is enough food in the house, there will be good menu for the family.
- Bulk purchasing is expensive: – It can take much of the family income and prevent the purchasing of other items needed in the family.
- Food spoilage: – poor quality foods or large quantities of purchased food can spoil easily.
- Lack of storage facilities could be a problem if food items are purchased in bulk
FACTORS TO CONSIDER BEFORE PURCHASING FOODS IN BULK
- Money available: – It is a major determining factor. Before purchasing in bulk, the homemaker should ensure that money should cover item to be bought and there is money left for petty purchase.
- The storage facilities available: – the type of facility in the house will determine the quantity of items to be bought. For instance, it will be unwise to buy large quantity of meat when there is no deep freezer.
- Rate of consumption of food item: – Food that is consumed in large quantity in the family should be purchased in bulk while the ones consumed in small quantity should be purchased less to avoid spoilage due to prolong storage.
- The nature of foodstuff: – non perishable food should be purchased in bulk while perishable foods should not be purchased in bulk because their keeping quality is low.
- Size of the family: – the number of people in family has to be considered before purchasing in bulk.
- Quality of the food to be purchased: – fresh and wholesome foods should be purchased in bulk. Do not buy the ones that have been attacked by weavil.
STORAGE OF FOODS
Food storage is the safe keeping of food for some time before consumption. Foods can either be stored unprocessed immediately after harvesting in the farm (post harvest storage) or stored processed at home. When foods are not properly stored, they can easily be spoiled by microorganisms, food enzymes and insects.
In order to prevent food from deteriorating, arrangement must be made for the storage of foods. Foods can be stored by traditional or modern method.
Traditionally, foods can be stored in huts, local silos or cribs, gourds, pots, burying in holes etc. The modern methods involve refrigeration, plastic containers etc.
CLASSIFICATION OF FOODSTUFF
- PERISHABLE FOODS: – They are characterized by their high moisture content. Their moisture content is about 80 % and their shelf life is from 2 hours to 3 days. They include fruits, vegetables, milk, meat, and fish.
HINTS FOR STORING PERISHABLE FOODS
- Store fresh meat and fish in the freezer.
- Fruits and vegetables can be stored at the lowest part of the refrigerator or vegetable crisper
- Do not store fruits and vegetables for very long time in the refrigerator because vitamin C is lost in long storage
- Perishable foods can be processed into forms that can store for some time. For instance, some vegetables and fruits can be dried e.g. okra, pepper, tomatoes while fish and meat can be smoked.
- Fresh vegetable in the absence of a refrigerator can be stored in the dew for fresh air. The roots of vegetables like lettuce, spinach can be stored in water. It helps to preserve vegetables.
- Eggs should be stored in egg rack in the middle compartment of the refrigerator or in an airy cool place within the crate.
- SEMI PERISHALE OR INTERMEDIATE MOISTURE FOODS: – These are those foods under proper conditions can store for one to few weeks. Their moisture content is fairly low (60 %) e.g. roots, tubers (yam, potatoes etc).
HINTS FOR STORING SEMI PERISHABLE FOODS
- Yam could be stored in barns or on a raised wooden platform or racks.
- Root vegetables like potatoes, cocoyam should be stored in wooden racks, free from pest
- Onions spread out on a raffia tray and keep in airy place.
- NON PERISHABLE OR SHELF-STABLE FOODS: – These are foods that contain low moisture content (12-14 %) and under proper conditions can be stored for few weeks to months or even years. They do not spoil easily e.g. dried cereal, dried legumes, flour, coffee etc.
HINTS FOR STORING NON PERISHABLE FOODS
- Ensure that stored grain should be free from weevil and other grain eating insects
- Air tight containers with lids should be used in storing grains
IMPORTANCE OF PROPER STORAGE OF FOOD
- Reduce market frequency :- the rate of going to market by the homemaker to buy one item or the other is reduced
- It saves money: – the homemaker makes some monetary savings, which can be channeled to other items in the family.
- It prevents food spoilage.
FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD SELECTION
- The use of foodstuff
- Storage facilities available in the house
- Length of storage required
- The nature of foodstuff
- Gourd or pots: – shelled cereals can be locally stored in gourd or pot that has cover, dried pepper can be used to prevent insect attack.
- Huts: – they are round mud building with a roof covered with palm frond and raised above ground. In the hut, heat is applied to the stored grain.
- Silos: – they are used in storing cereals.
- Cupboard, cabinet and shelves can be used for storage at home
- Barns :- they are used for storing yam for consumption and the next planting season
- Refrigerator :- are used to store perishable foods
- Plastic containers :- They are used for storing dried grains, dried pulses, flour, ground food ingredient like melon, ogbono, liquid like oil etc
- Jute bags :- they used for storing legumes
- Pit storage :- This is the process of burying tubers in the ground
- Canning: – This is the process of storing food in the can after treating it under high temperature.
MEANING OF COMMON TERMS
- Market survey: it involves the study of commodity prices in different market at different times of the year to enable the consumer to know the market where to buy best.
IMPORTANCE OF MARKET SURVEY
- It shows places where a particular good can be bought at cheaper rate.
- It shows season of the year when special item are cheaper and plentiful
- It helps to compare quality and quantities of a particular line of product e.g. tin tomatoes like derica, clappa, gino etc.
- Cost analysis: it is a factor that help the manufacturer determine the cost of production which a consumer must pay in order to purchase a product.
- Price list: it is the price attached to household items or foodstuffs that need to be shopped for.
- Shopping list: it is the list of household or food items that need to be bought
- Homemade food: they are the foods that are prepared at home for family consumption. These foods are more nutritious.
- Commercial food: this is food that is produced in order to make profit after selling them
- Brand name: it is a name given to the product by the company that produces or sells it. It is usually given to identify a product by the manufacturer.
- Net weight: it is the actual weight of food without its container or packaging.
- Gross weight: it is the sum total of weight of the product content and the package.